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Extra resources for Adaptive Dynamics of Infectious Diseases: In Pursuit of Virulence Management
The model contrasts waterborne transmission with direct transmission, but it is readily modifiable to conform to other alternatives, such as those pertaining to the contrast between sit-and-wait transmission and direct transmission. 1). independent of transmission mode. We assume that the transmission coefficient β first rises as a function of α because increased host exploitation increases both α and the probability of infection per contacted host (a component of β), thus making increased virulence beneficial when virulence is low.
1 and Ewald 1991a). 6), but considering the many simplifying assumptions made for the model and the uncertainties regarding the compatibility of measurements, even a qualitative agreement is noteworthy. The empirical trend, for example, is observed in terms of the percentage of outbreaks involving water, whereas for our model we have measured the percentage of infections involving water. 6. 6. 6 therefore draw attention to the potential value of developing the model and obtaining more refined epidemiological data.
If ρ is not an increasing function of α), the positive correlation between percentage of waterborne transmission and virulence vanishes. 6 Pathogen-induced mortality as a function of the degree of waterborne transmission. Mortality is expressed as a proportional increase relative to that with no waterborne transmission. Waterborne transmission is expressed as a percentage of the total number of infections that occur via water as opposed to direct contact. 2; both show an accelerating rise in mortality as a function of increasing levels of waterborne transmission.