An Introduction to Geological Structures and Maps by G. M. Bennison (auth.)

By G. M. Bennison (auth.)

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Sample text

The axial planes of a series of such folds will also be approximately parallel over a small area, but over a larger area extending perhaps forty kilometres (greater than that portrayed in a problem map) they may be seen to form a fan structure. = = Similar and concentric folding When strata, originally horizontal, are folded it is clear that the higher beds of an anticline form a greater arc than the lower beds (and the converse applies in a syncline). Theoretically at least two mechanisms are possible: the beds on the outside of a fold may be relatively stretched while those on the inside are compressed, or the beds on the outside of a fold may slide over the surface of the inner beds (Fig.

I I 0 Iu \ _. '~•••••. - ,~o::;. ::::::- .................... . I~ •••••••• .... I .... .. . .... ...... :;.... /a-!. . . . ·d····· -: ....... o . ·~ ...... • . • . • n(j ' ......... /" " ", / ,\()if I "\ / J / / -- ( ) I ". / - <-,() / ..... -100 - __ -. --- 0/ SO" ..... Map 20 Deduce the main structural features from the outcrop patterns. Insert the fold axial traces on the map. Draw a geological section along the line X-Y. Insert on the map the sub-Permian Limestone outcrops of the coal seam, the sandstone and the fault plane.

0 en c:a> co c: -~Jl! 00. oal co- -0 ~~ en_ a> 0 J::en - -a. o0 L... 0. -o::J \ _0 o a> -c:_ J:: ::J a> o L... '" -01 [ii~ c:-o oc: :;:::co o ~ a>LL.. 2~ co . ~ CIS a> :E£ o o 10 Z""iE<~--- wen -'Q) < .... , .... , ..... " \ 0 \ o \ 0 0 ... 'p / 0 \ / 000 0 / (-> 0 ", 00 " " 0 /~ / X 39 6 More folds and faulted folds Plunging folds In the folds so far studied, the axis of the fold has been horizontal. The axis is the intersection of the axial plane with any bedding plane. (Make a synclinal fold by taking a piece of paper and folding it in two to make a simple V-shape.

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